The health and productivity of young calves can be affected by a wide range of metabolic and pathogenic conditions. Among the maladies that can profoundly affect calves’ health is their intake and balance of sodium.
Flies are more than just an annoyance for calves in warm weather. High fly populations also can spread diseases among calves; cause stress and reduced immunity; and negatively impact growth and weight gain.
Dairy calf research in the preweaned phase has been plentiful in the past few decades. However, there is now much to be learned in the relatively unchartered nutritional territory of the post-weaning phase.