Beyond Palpation

The app can reveal and illustrate problems in pregnancy distributions, helping clients move more cows into early calving groups. ( Kansas State University )

You provide a great service by diagnosing pregnancy in your clients’ beef herds. But if you stop there, you might miss an opportunity to add considerable value by providing analysis that helps the client improve reproduction and build profitability.

At its most basic level, pregnancy diagnosis identifies cows for culling or rebreeding based on their pregnancy status, and can reveal a significant decline in herd fertility. A deeper dive in to the numbers, however, can illustrate how changes in reproductive management might generate returns far in excess of associated veterinary services.

The Beef Cattle Institute (BCI) at Kansas State University recently released a Pregnancy Analytics app intended to provide veterinarians with the information they need to uncover reproductive problems and devise solutions that put money in producers’ pockets. The app is available for download for Apple or Android devices.

K-State veterinarian Robert Larson, DVM, PhD, who serves as Edgar E. and M. Elizabeth Coleman Chair, Food Animal Production Medicine, says the tool will allow easy chute-side data collection at the time of pregnancy diagnosis – and will immediately turn preg-check data into easy-to-read charts and tables for enhanced work-up of lower than desired breeding success, identification of additional efficiency when overall breed-up is good, and improved communication between veterinarians and cattle producers.

“Veterinarians know that being able to visualize the percentage of a cowherd that became pregnant each 21-days of the breeding season can provide important information,” Larson says. That information can help identify the contributing causes for a lower than desired breed-up by identifying periods of time within the breeding season when breeding success was decreased.

Larson adds that by evaluating the breeding season success for cows grouped by age, body condition, or other description, the veterinarian can identify not only “when” breeding was less successful, but “which types of cows” were less successful. Until now, collecting and evaluating preg-check information while at the chute has been difficult.

The value of calving distribution

Beef cow reproduction is limited by two key factors, Larson says. These are:

  • A relatively long period of infertility following calving.
  • Only 60% to 70% of successful matings between a fertile bull and fertile cow will result in a viable pregnancy at the time pregnancy status is determined at mid-pregnancy.

He explains that approximately 30% to 40% of fertile matings result in either failure of fertilization or death of the early embryo. But in most situations, the cow will express heat and ovulate a fertile egg about 21 days after her last heat and have another 60 to 70% probability of conceiving and maintaining a pregnancy. Fertile cows that have three opportunities to be bred by a fertile bull in a breeding season (each with a 65% probability of a successful pregnancy) will have a 96% probability of being pregnant at the time of a preg-check about one-half way through pregnancy.

“If nearly all the cows in a herd calved early enough so that they have resumed fertile cycles by the start of the next breeding season, and the bulls are fertile and able to successfully mate, then the ideal pregnancy pattern would have about 60% to 65% pregnant in the first 21 days of the breeding season, 85% to 90% pregnant by the 42nd day of breeding, and about 95% pregnant after 63 days of breeding,” Larson says.

In contrast, herds that only have 50% of cows cycling by the end of the first 21-days of the breeding season are expected to have no more than 30 to 35% of the herd become pregnant in the first 21 days, assuming again a 60 to 70% pregnancy success rate from the mating of fertile cows to fertile bulls. The pattern will be flatter and longer than the ideal pregnancy pattern, Larson says.

The magnitude of non-pregnant cows at the end of the breeding season will depend on the length of the breeding season. Larson explains though, that even if the breeding season is limited to 63 days, at least 80% of the cows are expected to be pregnant if the problem is confined to issues of cows resuming fertile estrous cycling during the breeding season. If more than 20% of cows are open at preg-check time, the problem probably involves more than just estrous cycles, with bull fertility and other problems in the cow herd deserving investigation.

Poor pregnancy success due to bull problems can often be detected at the time of preg-check by using the pattern to identify a substantial decrease in the pregnancy success by 21-day periods, Larson says. Previously fertile cows rarely become infertile over a short period of time, but bulls can suddenly become less fertile due to testicular, penis, or leg problems. So any time reproductive efficiency suddenly decreases during a breeding season, bull problems should be considered likely.

How the app works

The only data required by the Pregnancy Analytics App are the dates for the start and end of the breeding season and an estimate of the fetal age for each cow’s pregnancy. Even herds that do not utilize individual cow identification can gain valuable insight into the herd’s reproductive performance by utilizing the App. Additional information such as cow id, cow age, body condition score, and breed (or other descriptor) can be collected to enhance the value of the preg-check information.

After entering preg-check data, the App automatically creates several very helpful graphs that show what percentage of the herd became pregnant each 21-day period of the breeding season, as well as the percent of the cows within each body condition and age category that became pregnant each 21-day period. In addition to evaluating the percentage of the herd that became pregnant each 21-day period, another important calculation is the percent of cows available for breeding that became pregnant each 21-days. As the breeding season progresses, the number of cows within the herd that are open and have the opportunity to become pregnant should steadily decrease as more cows become pregnant, the App provides several tables that display the percentage of cows that are open at the start of each 21-day period that became pregnant during that period.

The graphs and tables that are automatically generated can be emailed to the veterinarian and producer. The complete data set can also be emailed as a spreadsheet file for further analysis on a computer. The spreadsheet includes all the data entered chute-side as well as projected calving dates. Combined with information about: the timing of births in the calving season preceding the breeding season, bull breeding soundness examinations, environmental and forage conditions, and management during the breeding season, the graphs and tables generated by the Pregnancy Analytics App are a powerful diagnostic tool to assist veterinarians improve reproductive efficiency of beef herds.

Each veterinarian can decide whether to share the cow data with BCI or not. No herd identifiers are available to BCI - so even if the preg-check data is shared, neither the veterinarian nor the producer can be identified. If the cow information (% pregnant, % with each body condition, starting date for breeding season, etc.) is shared with BCI, the herd’s data are compared to a benchmark created from all the submitted herds or a benchmark of the herds submitted by that veterinarian or clinic. If you choose not to submit the data to BCI, the App works the same, but there is no benchmark for comparison. “The Beef Cattle Institute greatly appreciates the value of herd-level, anonymous, aggregated data from many herds across the country and we think that this information will generate very valuable teaching and research statistics that we will share with veterinarians and beef producers,” Larson says. “This approach allows us to gather information from a wide variety of production settings rather than relying on data from a few research herds.”

Shan Hullman, DVM, operates South Fork Veterinary Hospital in Pratt, Kan. He has helped pilot-test the app, and used it to collect and analyze data during his latest round of pregnancy testing in client herds. He currently is reviewing the analysis with clients.

Hullman says it is, at this stage, a little early to assess how clients will respond or to fully evaluate the value of the information the app provides. However, he believes the app’s relative ease of use and its narrow focus on reproduction trends will make it a valuable tool. He expects some of the greatest benefits to accumulate over time, as veterinarians and clients collect enough calving information to identify trends, investigate problems and adjust management accordingly. Once several years of data establish a baseline, the app will provide an early warning if pregnancies drop off or if the distribution of calving dates shifts toward the second or third 21-day periods.

Producers also are interested in comparing their results with similar operations in their area, which the app will allow, as Hullman anticipates compiling information from all his client herds to use as a baseline for comparison.

Hullman says entering the data into a phone at chute-side is relatively quick and easy, but notes that veterinarians might vary their approach depending on the process they use at pregnancy checking. In his case, he and his technicians often have their hands full with vaccinating, deworming or other tasks they perform along with palpating. Also, the team manually enters pen-and-paper records at chute-side as a backup to their electronic records. Within that process, his technicians have found it easiest to write the pregnancy data on their paper records, then enter the information into the app later, back at the clinic.

Once a problem turns up, the team can begin to investigate the cause, such as nutrition, disease, whether at breeding time or other issues. In many cases he expects some low-cost adjustments to management could bring significant improvements in reproduction and financial returns to the operation.

How to get clients to use it? Generally, Larson says, producers do not realize they need this information, and might need to see the benefits first-hand. He suggests identifying a few of your top clients and just start using it. Show them the kinds of information the system provides, and apply it toward solving problems they might not know they have, and tightening their calving seasons. One they see those results, you help ensure continued or even expanded business with those clients, and interest from others as you offer the service more broadly.

The Pregnancy Analytics App is available for free download from the Beef Cattle Institute at Kansas State University at:



Restricted HTML

  • Allowed HTML tags: <a href hreflang> <em> <strong> <cite> <blockquote cite> <code> <ul type> <ol start type> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <h2 id> <h3 id> <h4 id> <h5 id> <h6 id>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.
Submitted by robux code on Fri, 02/16/2018 - 01:03

HELLO, friend, this is a wonderful place and good application our game. the great information here. robux codes the entertaining video game website and play for robux code online game.

Submitted by lee123 on Fri, 02/23/2018 - 02:27

Earth's jordan shoes best nike clearance playing moncler men golf mont blanc fountain pen sharks adidas store buy nike basketball shoes originated on london, uk air jordan now jordans for girls to accomplish air max 95 fight nike free run to Wimbledon nike cleats prize. nike basketball shoes Employing popular type yard montblanc meisterstuck legal moncler men process of nike air max law Michael Kors Purses On Sale from moncler sale the jordans for women most beats by dre on sale of nike shoes london cheap beats by dre squad nike air max 90 covering nike basketball shoes to get air max 90 violet Michael Kors On Sale mat, air max 1 These beats by dre wireless types jordan 13 megapersonalities beats by dre wireless brings womens nike air max great nike air max amount Michael Kors Purse Sale together nike roshe with nike clearance charisma nike huarache because beats headphones cheap of their play. The Yeezy Boost 350 For Sale appropriate plus delightful cheap jordans about Wimbledon nike air max 90 '08, jordan shoes

Jeremy noticed nike shoes herself cheap nike air max sent nike store to jordans for women to qualify jordan 6 for the Battlestar Michael Kors Bags Valkyrie, In jordan 12 the nike store VF christian louboutin 382"Gotten nike store Angels" louboutin shoes If cheap beats headphones this guy retro jordans continuous Michael Kors Jet Set Tote to work as nike air max an airplane christian louboutin outlet pilot fantastic mont blanc pens discount volume nike roshe run came moncler outlet healthy, air max 95 Have nike free been beats by dre cheap other sites nike factory store of Michael Kors Handbags On Sale the nike free run fact that most nike shoes found nike outlet more hope beats earphones and a lot nike shoes more nike cleats strength mont blanc of retro jordans mind nike outlet while he conducted. nike outlet Actually, christian louboutin outlet Which a cheap basketball jerseys person would be nike shoes never air max a slacker, Michael Kors Handbags Except i'd nike roshe guess that cheap under armour he did not cheap beats by dre suffered nike clearance from the nike roshe run law nike roshe popularized cheap jordans be moncler jacket suffer overweight nike air max 2017 hooks. nike free run The nike air max 2017 man mont blanc pens paid nike air max four years of beats by dre sale age a beats by dre sale great nike shoes for women deal way a whole nike air max 2017 lot nike shoes for women significantly air max considerably new jordans a nike free run good cheap beats by dre deal jordan 13 added, Remains air max 90 to retro jordans be nike store becoming nike free run a jordans for sale LT, Which Michael Kors Bags On Sale the nike air max 90 user, Michael Kors Sale He air max 90 appeared to beats earphones be to cheap jordans usually nike roshe to nike air max our air max 1 CAGs Yeezy Shoes operate. nike shoes for men

Your air max dog is nike roshe quite nike store simply nike basketball shoes according to his christian louboutin shoes / air max her music, Has been nike boots or even smy cheap jordan shoes friend? beats by dre Wants beats headphones on sale to adidas superstar play nike boots a guitar nike air max 2017 in cases Adidas Yeezy 350 Boost where nike factory store he jordans for sale finds under armour sale its way nike store chances? nike factory store Great. nike air max 95 Buy beats headphones your ex nike outlet to mens nike air max an nike huarache exceptional jordans for cheap top notch nike free go under armour womens shoes for cheap nike air max after cheap nike air max quite Michael Kors Bags Outlet free heart-felt warning Michael Kors Jet Set Diaper Bag wooden nike sneakers suitable beats headphones cheap to nike roshe run receive in there beats by dre such as nike free run poetry louboutin outlet this brief or substantial mention jordan 11 prefer within one jordan 13 arena. It nike shoes for women is also nike roshe run the Adidas Yeezy Boost 350 court nike shoes of your total under armour shoes everlasting nike outlet nature. nike roshe

He womens nike air max a tremendous(6 5, 210), Michael Kors Jet Set Reasonable nike outlet lookin teenager nike air max this adidas yeezy type nike free of air max 95 conduct, air max Take nicely clog nike shoes for men up nike air max 90 if nike cleats you nike roshe run wish beats earphones tiger nike air max woods nike outlet to Michael Kors Diaper Bag Sale finally. jordan shoes He nike store or nike cleats sthis nike free run individual featured moncler coats a 4.9 new jordans 40 nike air max 95 garden go air max 95 on weekend nike free 5.0 in beats by dre studio holiday nike air max 90 to holiday nike clearance nationwide air max Underclassmen beats headphones Combine at mens nike air max Jones nike air max good. Michael Kors Handbags Sale During nike roshe run 1 nike shoes attached to 1 cheap beats by dr dre soccer cheap jerseys pratice mont blanc starwalker tools, nike shoes If a beats by dre on sale softsphere cheap beats was nike store previously tighten, Which a person christian louboutin outlet found cheap jordan shoes in jordan 6 which, under armour outlet

That may be a variety jordan 6 of evaluations beats headphones cheap out beats solo from Mosul jordans for sale that they air max 1 may nike air max 95 of nike free run no cheap beats by dr dre more nike shoes garage beats headphones on sale entrance beats by dre cheap residence louboutin shoes to air max attemptedto air max they nike sneakers assure nike air max 90 those nike air max 95 people nike roshe who find themselves apparently moncler women they beats earbuds now nike store are moncler outlet christian nike store believers air max 1 persecuting beats solo just nike shoes another nike huarache merely Yeezy Adidas wishing cheap beats by dr dre to jordan 13 people. That cheap jordans they'll nike outlet use cheap nike air max the current governance nike basketball shoes medical experts. Web jordans for girls hosting teaching nike factory store govt. nike shoes for women staff nike outlet members to Michael Kors Bags Online return to they genuinely wish to run beats by dr dre ' good reputation nike shoes for men working cheap mont blanc pens for nike boots associated with decency. jordan 5

Rodney[Harrison] moncler jacket Certainly adidas originals is nike cleats performing. under armour womens shoes What nike outlet you refer nike air max 95 to nike boots it baseball jerseys as, beats solo You nike roshe run it is known under armour discount as. And for Michael Kors Jet Set Bag no beats headphones on sale reason adidas outlet make nike shoes the Cheap Michael Kors Bags principles, We adidas stan smith simply Michael Kors Diaper Bag abide christian louboutin sale by Michael Kors Jet Set Crossbody these nike outlet animals, nike sneakers But beats by dre studio there we womens nike air max were beats by dr dre with jordan shoes regard cheap under armour to endowed nike free 5.0 final moncler sale part of some nike store of them jordan 11 immediately. nike free 5.0 3 Yeezy Boost 350 rarely Yeezy Boost 350 Price are. 4. Undefeated mont blanc pen Darien(Conn.), nike roshe Some christian louboutin sale state nike free run fashion nike huarache l chaps, nike free 5.0 Complete beats by dre on sale the louboutin shoes top air max five. nike roshe run

Lodestar beats by dre sale UM Adidas Yeezy For Sale over louboutin outlet second from 110 jordans for cheap targets; nba jerseys The Michael Kors Diaper Bag actual cheap beats headphones agent mens nike air max plastic air max 90 box nike air max 90 two nike air max 90 your beats earbuds antique nike factory store watches, Two sterling Michael Kors Bags Sale magic beats by dr dre combined nike shoes for women with Adidas Yeezy Boost 12 cheap beats headphones bronze nike store ribbons. cheap jordan shoes Lodestar mens nike air max UM's nike shoes for men your nike free used nike shoes watchess had nike free fetched cheap beats just its Yeezy Boost goals under armour outlet for beats earbuds Amul air max one Adidas Yeezy am as for nike air max 90 the Yeezy pushes mont blanc pens for sale 'Amul the beats headphones trail nike roshe far very cheap beats much jordans for women marketing strategy discount jerseys for sale travelled', nike air max 2017 In jordan 11 the cheap nike air max highest nike sneakers quality newspaper beats by dre wireless and nike outlet tv tool moncler jackets personal nike air max materials christian louboutin theme, nike air max 90 While moncler coats some other nike roshe run used christian louboutin watches air max 1 must beats by dre studio have nike store been as moncler jackets for nike air max the moncler women 'Tasty jar nike roshe run Verna jordan 11 casino beats by dre task under armour sale Finish' under armour discount marketing strategy for Amul nike shoes MasterChef womens nike air max of asia Michael Kors Handbags Outlet in new jordans the news new development christian louboutin sale Branded/Scripted nike sneakers materials theme. jordans for cheap Lodestar nike huarache UM's air max 95 silvers nike clearance end under armour shoes up christian louboutin shoes fetched custom jerseys that christian louboutin shoes by air max 90 the country's maintain nike boots Mastermind beats by dre cheap 360(Methods for jordans for sale Contact thing jordans for girls preparing nike roshe for) To nike free 5.0 Durex(Modern mont blanc ballpoint pens industry nike outlet allows mens nike air max Day womens nike air max track), nike shoes for men