In terms of maximizing bottle-feeding nutritional benefits, Sizelove said there are several schools of thought regarding frequency of feedings.
“A concentrated milk-replacement formula provides less volume but is nutrient dense,” he said. “Calves fed concentrated formula consume 2 to 3 liters per day, compared to 6 or more liters with standard milk replacer. This method helps the calf’s rumen develop quicker so the animal can eat solid food at an earlier age.”
Cattle possess four stomachs: the rumen, abomasum, reticulum and omasum. The abomasum is the only one fully functioning in a newborn calf, restricting the animal to a liquid diet until 10 to 12 weeks of age.
“We’re extremely grateful for the volunteers who are doing what they can, but many still have limited time to help out when it comes to specific activities such as bottle feeding calves so it is important for producers to remember basic management considerations,” said Darrell McBee, Harper County Extension Office director and agricultural educator.
For example, bottle feeding an orphan calf once a day may cause digestive upset or bloating. Feeding twice a day is a more preferred method. Calves should consume 8 percent to 10 percent of their body weight daily.
“If possible, divide the calf’s meals between morning and evening, feeding an equal amount each time, typically at a level between 4 percent and 5 percent of its body weight,” McBee said.
In essence, if the calf weighs 30 pounds it should receive 3 liters of milk daily or 1.5 liters at each feeding.
Some livestock studies recommend bottle feeding a calf three to four times per day, and for a very basic reason: consuming small, frequent meals enables a calf to better absorb nutrients.
“Mix 0.25 pounds of milk replacer with 1.5 quarts of water if you are feeding four times daily,” McBee said. “Mix 0.33 pounds of milk replacer with the same amount of water if you are only able to offer food three times per day.”
Sizelove reminds producers that diarrhea is the number one concern with newborn calves, a condition that can often lead to dehydration.
“Frequent feedings provide a calf with greater water intake, helping to prevent dehydration during diarrhea,” he said. “Dehydration is associated with loss of essential body chemicals often referred to as electrolytes and the buildup of acid.”
Anyone seeking additional information about the care of livestock following a natural disaster such as wildfire should contact their county Extension office, typically listed under “County Government” in local directories.